Received: 18 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

A Short History of Cardiac Inspection: A Quest “To See with a Better Eye”



William N Evans, MD



Children’s Heart Center Nevada, 3006 S Maryland Pkwy, Ste 690, Las Vegas, Nevada 89109, USA. Email:



Cardiac examination has evolved over centuries.  The goal of cardiac evaluation, regardless the era, is to ‘‘see’’ inside the heart to diagnose congenital and acquired intra-cardiac structural and functional abnormalities.  This article briefly reviews the history of cardiac examination and discusses contemporary best, evidence-based methods of cardiac inspection.


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