Pediatr Cardiol

DOI 10.1007/s00246-016-1444-1

Received: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 June 2016

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016


Normal Sinus RhythmŠSinus Bradycardia is Common in Young Children Post-extracardiac Fontan



William N Evans, MD, Ruben J Acherman, MD, Humberto Restrepo, MD, MPH



ChildrenÕs Heart Center Nevada, 3006 S Maryland Pkwy, Ste 690, Las Vegas, Nevada 89109, USA. Email:



We hypothesized that normal sinus rhythmŠsinus bradycardia is common in young children following extracardiac Fontan. After excluding patients with sinus pauses, junctional rhythm, tachyŠbrady syndrome, frequent ectopics, or ectopic atrial rhythm, we found an ambulatory 24-h Holter monitor average heart rate of 78 ±  12 beats per minute (bpm) in 33 post-extracardiac Fontan children with a median age of 6 years (5Š10). A 24-h average heart rate of 78 ±  12 bpm is statistically significantly lower than a 24-h average heart rate value of 90 ±  10 bpm derived from a similarly aged control population (p\ 0.01). We conclude that after excluding those with significant arrhythmias, normal sinus rhythmŠ sinus bradycardia is common in children post-extracardiac Fontan. 


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